Brussels

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Brussels
Bruxelles ()
Brussel ()
—  Region of Belgium  —
Brussels-Capital Region[1][2]
Région de Bruxelles-Capitale ()
Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest ()
A collage with several views of Brussels


Nickname(s): Capital of Europe,[3] Comic city[4][5]
Location of  Brussels(red)

– in the European Union(brown & light brown)
– in Belgium(brown)

Coordinates: 50°51′0″N 4°21′0″E / 50.85°N 4.35°E / 50.85; 4.35
Sovereign state Belgium
Settled c.580
Founded 979
Region 18 June 1989
Municipalities
Government
 - Minister-President Charles Picqué (2004-)
 - Governor Jean Clément (acting) (2010-)
 - Parl. President Eric Tomas
Area
 - Region  dunams (161.4 km2 / 62.2 sq mi)
Elevation
Population (1 November 2008)[6][7]
 - Region 1,080,790
 Density
 - Urban density
 - Rural density
 Metro 1,830,000
 - Metro density
 -  Density
 -  Density
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 BE-BRU
Website www.portail.irisnet.be

Brussels (French: Bruxelles, pronounced ; Dutch: Brussel, pronounced ), officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region[1][2] (French: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest ), is the de facto capital of Belgium and of the European Union (EU). It is also the largest urban area in Belgium,[8][9] comprising 19 municipalities, including the municipality of the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium, in addition to the seat of the French Community of Belgium and of the Flemish Community.[10]

Brussels has grown from a 10th-century fortress town founded by a descendant of Charlemagne into a metropolis of more than one million inhabitants.[11] The metropolitan area has a population of over 1.8 million, making it the largest in Belgium.[6][7]

Since the end of the Second World War, Brussels has been a main centre for international politics. Hosting principal EU institutions[12] as well as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the city has become the polyglot home of numerous international organisations, politicians, diplomats and civil servants.[13]

Although historically Dutch-speaking, Brussels became increasingly French-speaking over the 19th and 20th centuries. Today a majority of inhabitants are native French-speakers, and both languages have official status.[14] Linguistic tensions remain, and the language laws of the municipalities surrounding Brussels are an issue of considerable controversy in Belgium.

History

The most common theory for the toponymy of Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Broeksel or other spelling variants, which means marsh (broek) and home (sel) or "home in the marsh".[15] The origin of the settlement that was to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.[16] Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai made the first recorded reference to the place "Brosella" in 695[17] when it was still a hamlet. The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island.

Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven gained the County of Brussels around 1000 by marrying Charles' daughter. Because of its location on the shores of the Senne on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, and Cologne, Brussels grew quite quickly; it became a commercial centre that rapidly extended towards the upper town (St. Michael and Gudula Cathedral, Coudenberg, Sablon/Zavel area...), where there was a smaller risk of floods. As it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. The Counts of Leuven became Dukes of Brabant at about this time (1183/1184). In the 13th century, the city got its first walls.[18]

After the construction of the first walls of Brussels, in the early 13th century, Brussels grew significantly. To let the city expand, a second set of walls was erected between 1356 and 1383. Today, traces of it can still be seen, mostly because the "small ring", a series of roadways in downtown Brussels bounding the historic city centre, follows its former course.

In the 15th century, by means of the wedding of heiress Margaret III of Flanders with Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, a new Duke of Brabant emerged from the House of Valois (namely Antoine, their son), with another line of descent from the Habsburgs (Maximilian of Austria, later Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, married Mary of Burgundy, who was born in Brussels). Brabant had lost its independence, but Brussels became the Princely Capital of the prosperous Low Countries, and flourished.

Charles V, heir of the Low Countries since 1506, though (as he was only 6 years old) governed by his aunt Margaret of Austria until 1515, was declared King of Spain, in 1516, in the Cathedral of Saint Gudule in Brussels. Upon the death of his grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Charles became the new archduke of the Habsburg Empire and thus the Holy Roman Emperor of the Empire "on which the sun does not set". It was in the Palace complex at Coudenberg that Charles V abdicated in 1555. This impressive palace, famous all over Europe, had greatly expanded since it had first become the seat of the Dukes of Brabant, but it was destroyed by fire in 1731.

In 1695, King Louis XIV of France sent troops to bombard Brussels with artillery. Together with the resulting fire, it was the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels. The Grand Place was destroyed, along with 4000 buildings, a third of those in the city. The reconstruction of the city centre, effected during subsequent years, profoundly changed the appearance of the city and left numerous traces still visible today. The city was captured by France in 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession but was handed back to Austria three years later.

In 1830, the Belgian revolution took place in Brussels after a performance of Auber's opera La Muette de Portici at the La Monnaie theatre. On 21 July 1831, Leopold I, the first King of the Belgians, ascended the throne, undertaking the destruction of the city walls and the construction of many buildings. Following independence, the city underwent many more changes. The Senne had become a serious health hazard, and from 1867 to 1871 its entire course through the urban area was completely covered over. This allowed urban renewal and the construction of modern buildings and boulevards characteristic of downtown Brussels today.

During the 20th century the city has hosted various fairs and conferences, including the fifth Solvay Conference in 1927 and two world fairs: the Brussels International Exposition of 1935 and the Expo '58. Brussels suffered damage from World War II, though it was minor compared to cities in Germany and the United Kingdom.

After the war, Brussels was modernized for better and for worse. The construction of the North–South connection linking the main railway stations in the city was completed in 1952, while the first Brussels premetro was finished in 1969, and the first line of the Brussels Metro was opened in 1976. Starting from the early 1960s, Brussels became the de facto capital of what would become the European Union, and many modern buildings were built. Unfortunately, development was allowed to proceed with little regard to the aesthetics of newer buildings, and many architectural gems were demolished to make way for newer buildings that often clashed with their surroundings, a process known as Brusselization.

The Brussels-Capital Region was formed on 18 June 1989 after a constitutional reform in 1970. The Brussels-Capital Region was made bilingual, and it is one of the three federal regions of Belgium, along with Flanders and Wallonia.[1][2]

Municipalities

The 19 municipalities of the Brussels-Capital Region
  1. Anderlecht
  2. Auderghem/Oudergem
  3. Berchem-Sainte-Agathe/Sint-Agatha-Berchem
  4. City of Brussels
  5. Etterbeek
  6. Evere
  7. Forest/Vorst
  8. Ganshoren
  9. Ixelles/Elsene
  10. Jette
  11. Koekelberg
  12. Molenbeek-Saint-Jean/Sint-Jans-Molenbeek
  13. Saint-Gilles/Sint-Gillis
  14. Saint-Josse-ten-Noode/Sint-Joost-ten-Node
  15. Schaerbeek/Schaarbeek
  16. Uccle/Ukkel
  17. Watermael-Boitsfort/Watermaal-Bosvoorde
  18. Woluwe-Saint-Lambert/Sint-Lambrechts-Woluwe
  19. Woluwe-Saint-Pierre/Sint-Pieters-Woluwe

The 19 municipalities (communes) of the Brussels-Capital Region are political subdivisions with individual responsibilities for the handling of local level duties, such as law enforcement and the upkeep of schools and roads within its borders.[19][20] Municipal administration is also conducted by a mayor, a council, and an executive.[20]

In 1831, Belgium was divided into 2,739 municipalities, including the 19 in the Brussels-Capital Region.[21] Unlike most of the municipalities in Belgium, the ones located in the Brussels-Capital Region were not merged with others during mergers occurring in 1964, 1970, and 1975.[21] However, several municipalities outside of the Brussels-Capital Region have been merged with the City of Brussels throughout its history including Laeken, Haren, and Neder-Over-Heembeek, which were merged into the City of Brussels in 1921.[22]

The largest and most populous of the municipalities is the City of Brussels, covering with 145,917 inhabitants. The least populous is Koekelberg with 18,541 inhabitants, while the smallest in area is Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, which is only . Despite being the smallest municipality, Saint-Josse-ten-Noode has the highest population density of the 19 with 20,822 inhabitants per km².

Climate

Brussels
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: [23]

Under the Köppen climate classification Brussels experiences an oceanic climate (Cfb). Brussels' proximity to coastal areas influences the area's climate by sending marine air masses from the Atlantic Ocean. Nearby wetlands also ensure a maritime temperate climate. On average (based on measurements the last 100 years), there are approximately 200 days of rain per year in the Brussels-Capital Region.[24] Snowfall is rare, generally occurring once or twice a year.

Climate data for Brussels
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year