Copyright symbol

©

Punctuation
apostrophe ( ’ ' )
brackets ( [ ], ( ), , ⟨ ⟩ )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dash ( , –, —, ― )
ellipsis ( …, ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
Word dividers
space ( ) ( ) ( ) (␠) (␢) (␣)
interpunct ( · )
General typography
ampersand ( & )
at sign ( @ )
asterisk ( * )
backslash ( \ )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
copyright symbol ( © )
currency (generic) ( ¤ )
currency (specific)
฿ ¢ $ ƒ £ ¥
dagger ( †, ‡ )
degree ( ° )
ditto mark ( )
inverted exclamation mark ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign/pound/hash ( # )
numero sign ( )
ordinal indicator ( º, ª )
percent etc. ( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( ′, ″, ‴ )
registered trademark ( ® )
section sign ( § )
service mark ( )
sound recording copyright ( )
tilde ( ~ )
trademark ( )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/broken bar, pipe ( |, ¦ )
Uncommon typography
asterism ( )
tee ( )
up tack ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
because sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony & sarcasm punctuation ( ؟ )
lozenge ( )
reference mark ( )
tie ( )

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The copyright symbol, designated by © (a circled "C"), is the symbol used in copyright notices for works other than sound recordings (which are indicated with the symbol). The use of the symbol is described in United States copyright law,[1] and, internationally, by the Universal Copyright Convention.[2] The C stands for copyright.

Contents


US copyright notice

In the United States, the copyright notice consists of:

  • the © symbol, or the word "Copyright" or abbreviation "Copr.";
  • the year of first publication of the copyrighted work; and
  • an identification of the owner of the copyright, either by name, abbreviation, or other designation by which it is generally known.

e.g.

© 2011 John Smith

The notice was once required in order to receive copyright protection in the United States, but in countries respecting the Berne convention this is no longer the case. See Copyright notices.

Character

Because the © symbol has long been unavailable on typewriters and ASCII-based computer systems, it has been common to approximate this symbol with the characters (c); however, this approximation has no standing in law.[3]

The character is mapped in Unicode as .[4] On Windows systems, it may be entered by means of Alt codes, by holding the Alt key while typing the numbers 0169 on the numeric keypad. On Macintosh systems, it may be entered with G. The HTML entity is ©, and it can also be referenced as © or ©.

By using the option/alt + G command on a Macintosh, the copyright symbol can be typed. Like so: ©.

Unicode has also mapped and .[5] They are sometimes used as a substitute copyright symbol where the actual copyright symbol is not available in the font or in the character set, for example, in some Korean code pages.

Related symbols

  • The sound recording copyright symbol is the symbol (the capital letter P enclosed by a circle), and is used to designate copyright in a sound recording.
  • The copyleft symbol is a backwards C in a circle (copyright symbol © mirrored). Because it is unavailable on Unicode, it can be approximated with character between parenthesis (ↄ) or, if supported by the application, by combining it with the character ↄ⃝[6]. It has no legal meaning.[7]
  • The registered trademark symbol is the symbol ® (the capital letter R enclosed by a circle), and is used in some jurisdictions to designate a trademark that has been registered in an official office of record (such as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the United States).
  • The non-obligatory symbol used in a mask work protection notice is Ⓜ (M enclosed in a circle.)
  • In Japan, Ⓧ is used too.

See also

References