Frederick Fyvie Bruce (12 October 1910 – 11 September 1990) was a Biblical scholar, and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. His work New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? is considered a classic in the discipline of Christian apologetics.
He was born in Elgin, Moray, in Scotland, and was educated at the University of Aberdeen, Cambridge University and the University of Vienna. After teaching Greek for several years first at the University of Edinburgh and then at the University of Leeds he became head of the Department of Biblical History and Literature at the University of Sheffield in 1947. Aberdeen University bestowed an honorary "Doctor of Divinity" degree upon him in 1957. In 1959 he moved to the University of Manchester where he became Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis. In his career he wrote over forty books and served as editor of The Evangelical Quarterly and the Palestine Exploration Quarterly. He retired from teaching in 1978.
Bruce was a distinguished scholar on the life and ministry of Paul the Apostle, and wrote several studies the best known of which is Paul: Apostle of the Free Spirit (published in the USA as Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free). He also wrote commentaries on several biblical books including Romans, Acts of the Apostles, 1 & 2 Corinthians, The Gospel and Epistles of John, and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Bruce was in Christian fellowship at various places during his life, including both the Exclusive and Open Plymouth Brethren. However he did not affirm the dispensationalism and pretribulationism usually associated with the brethren.
Most of his works were scholarly, but he also penned several popular works on the Bible. He viewed the New Testament writings as historically reliable and the truth claims of Christianity as hingeing on their being so. To Bruce this did not mean that the Bible was always precise, or that this lack of precision could not lead to considerable confusion. He believed, however, that the passages that were still open to debate were ones that had no substantial bearing on Christian theology and thinking.
He was honoured with two scholarly works by his colleagues and former students, one to mark his sixtieth and the other to mark his seventieth birthday. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy, and served as President of the Society for Old Testament Study, and also as President of the Society for New Testament Study. He is one of a handful of scholars thus recognised by his peers in both fields.
This is an incomplete list of his publications :
- New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1981. (First published in 1943 as Are the New Testament Documents Reliable?) ISBN 0-8028-2219-3
- The Hittites and the Old Testament. Tyndale Old Testament Lecture, 1947. London: The Tyndale Press, 1947. Pbk. pp.28.
- The Books and the Parchments. London: Pickering & Inglis, 1950 (2nd edn 1953; 3rd & revised edn 1963; paperback revised edition 1971 ISBN 0-7208-0216-4)
- The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text With Introduction and Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1951.
- The Book of the Acts (New International Commentary on the New Testament). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1954. ISBN 0-8028-2182-0
- The Epistles to the Colossians and the Ephesians. (New International Commentary on the New Testament) Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1957. [title may be incorrect; Bruce wrote the Colossians commentary, and E.K. Simpson wrote the Ephesians commentary; see the 1984 replacement below entirely by Bruce]
- The Teacher of Righteousness in the Qumran Texts. London: The Tyndale Press, 1957. Pbk. pp.36.
- The Apostolic Defence of the Gospel. London: Inter-Varsity Press, 1959. ISBN 0-85110-306-5
- Biblical Exegesis in the Qumran Texts. London: The Tyndale Press, 1960. Pbk. pp.88.
- Paul and his Converts. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 1962. ISBN 0-71880-072-9
- Romans (Tyndale New Testament Commentary). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1963. ISBN 0-8028-1405-0
- Israel and the Nations. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1963. ISBN 0-85364-150-2
- Epistle to the Hebrews (New International Commentary on the New Testament). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1964.
- This is That. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1968. ISBN 0-85364-168-4 (published in the USA as New Testament Development of Old Testament Themes. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1968. ISBN 0-8028-1729-7)
- New Testament History. London: Oliphants, 1969. ISBN 0-551-00799-0
- The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text With Introduction and Commentary, 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1970.
- An Expanded Paraphrase Of The Epistles Of Paul. R.N. Haynes Publishers; 1st USA edition (1981) 323 pages. ISBN 0880210168 ISBN 978-0880210164
- Galatian Problems. John Rylands Library, 1971.
- Answers to Questions. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1972. 0-85364-101-3
- The 'Secret' Gospel of Mark. The Ethel M. Wood lecture delivered before the University of London on 11 February 1974. London: The Athlone Press, 1974. Pbk. ISBN 0485143186. pp.20.
- Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1974. ISBN 0-8028-1575-8
- Paul: Apostle of The Free Spirit. Exeter UK: Paternoster, 1977. ISBN 1-84227-027-3 (published in the USA as Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans,1977. ISBN 0-8028-4778-1)
- History of the Bible in English. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-19-520088-8
- The Epistles of John. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1979. ISBN 0-8028-1783-1
- Men and Movements in the Primitive Church. Exeter: Paternoster, 1979. ISBN 0-85364-705-4
- I & II Corinthians (New Century Bible Commentary). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1980. ISBN 0-8028-1839-0
- The Spreading Flame. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1980. ISBN 0-8028-1805-6
- Bible History Atlas. N.Y.: Crossroad, 1982. ISBN 0-8245-0418-6
- Epistle to the Galatians (New International Greek Testament Commentary). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1982. ISBN 0-8028-2387-4
- 1 & 2 Thessalonians (Word Biblical Commentary). Thomas Nelson, 1982. ISBN 0-8499-0244-4
- Hard Sayings of Jesus. Inter-Varsity, 1983. ISBN 0-87784-927-7
- Jesus and Paul: Places They Knew. Thomas Nelson, 1983. ISBN 0-8407-5281-4
- Abraham and David: Places They Knew. Thomas Nelson, 1984. ISBN 0-8407-5402-7
- The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians. (New International Commentary on the New Testament). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1984. ISBN 0-8028-2510-9 [This is Bruce's new commentary on Ephesians and Philemon along with a revision of his 1957 commentary from the Simpson and Bruce volume above]
- The Gospel of John. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1984. ISBN 0-8028-0883-2
- Jesus: Lord & Savior. Inter-Varsity, 1986.
- The Message of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1986. ISBN 0-8028-1525-1
- Romans (Tyndale New Testament Commentary), revised. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1986. ISBN 0-8028-0062-9
- Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Attic Press, 1986. ISBN 0-85364-017-3 ( download online copy here)
- The Canon of Scripture. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8308-1258-X
- The Book of the Acts, revised (New International Commentary on the New Testament). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1988. ISBN 0-8028-2505-2
- Philippians, (New International Biblical Commentary), 1989. Hendricksen. ISBN 0-943575-15-X
- Epistle to the Hebrews, revised. (New International Commentary on the New Testament) Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1990. ISBN 0-8028-2514-1
- The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text With Introduction and Commentary, 3rd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1990. ISBN 0-8028-0966-9
- A Mind For What Matters: Collected Essays. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1990. ISBN 0-8028-0446-2
- Kaiser, Walter C., Peter H. Davids, F. F. Bruce, and Manfred Brauch. Hard Sayings of the Bible. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996. ISBN 0-87784-927-7
- "The Chester Beatty Papyri," The Harvester 11 (1934): 163, 164.
- "What Do We Mean By Biblical Inspiration?" [[Science and Christian Belief|Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute] 78 (1946): 121-139.]
- "The Speeches In Acts: Thirty Years After," Robert Banks, ed., Reconciliation and Hope. New Testament Essays on Atonement and Eschatology Presented to L.L. Morris on his 60th Birthday. Carlisle: The Paternoster Press, 1974. pp.53-68.
- "The Background to the Son of Man Sayings," Christ The Lord. Studies in Christology presented to Donald Guthrie. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1982. Hbk. ISBN 0851117449. pp.50-70.
- "The Curse of the Law," M.D. Hooker & S.G. Wilson, eds., Paul and Paulinism. Essays in Honour of C.K. Barrett. London: SPCK. Hbk. ISBN 028103835X. pp.27-36.
- "Colossian Problems: Part 1: Jews and Christians in the Lycus Valley," Bibliotheca Sacra 141: 561 (1984): 3-13.
- "Colossian Problems: Part 2: The 'Christ Hymn' of Colossians 1:15-20," Bibliotheca Sacra 141: 562 (1984): 99-112.
- "Colossian Problems: Part 3: The Colossian Heresy," Bibliotheca Sacra 141: 563 (1984): 195-206.
- "Colossian Problems: Part 4: Christ as Conqueror and Reconciler," Bibliotheca Sacra 141: 564 (1984): 291-301.
- "Luke's Presentation of the Spirit in Acts," Criswell Theological Review 5.1 (1990) 15-29.
- annual Rylands lectures at the John Rylands Library, Manchester (published in Bulletin of the John Rylands Library