Hispanic America

Hispanic America or Spanish America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica) is the region comprising the American countries inhabited by Spanish-speaking populations.[1][2]

These countries have significant commonalities with each other and with Spain, whose colonies they formerly were. In all of these countries, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages (such as Guaraní, Quechua, Aymara, or Mayan), or English (in Puerto Rico).[3] Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, as well.[4]

Hispanic America differs from Ibero-America in that the latter comprises Hispanic America and Brazil (formerly "Portuguese America"), and for some uses includes the Iberian Peninsula nations of Portugal and Spain. Hispanic America also contrasts with Latin America, which includes Hispanic America and Brazil and, depending on definition, also the former French colonies in the Western Hemisphere.[5]

Contents


Countries

Country Population Area (km²)
Argentina 40,914,000 2,766,890
Bolivia 10,227,299 1,098,581
Chile 17,094,275 756,950 [6]
Colombia 45,273,936 1,141,748
Costa Rica 4,579,000 51,000
Cuba 11,451,652 110,861
Dominican Republic 10,090,000 48,730
Ecuador 14,067,000 256,370
El Salvador 7,185,000 21,040
Guatemala 14,655,189 108,890
Honduras 7,793,000 112,492
Mexico 109,955,400 1,972,550
Nicaragua 5,743,000 129,494
Panama 3,450,349 75,571
Paraguay 6,996,245 406,752
Peru 29,885,340 1,285,220
Puerto Rico 3,994,259 9,104
Uruguay 3,415,920 176,215
Venezuela 28,549,745 916,445
Total 375,607,614 11,444,903

In comparison, the population of Anglo-America (United States and Canada) is approximately 337,000,000, while that of Brazil is 192,000,000.[7] Canada (9,984,670 km²) and the United States (9,826,630 km²) occupy a combined area of 19,811,300 km², and Brazil occupies 8,511,965 km².[8]

Largest cities

15 Largest metro areas in Hispanic America
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City Country Population Metro
Mexico City  Mexico 8,720,916 19,331,365
Buenos Aires  Argentina 3,050,728 13,400,000
Lima  Peru 7,605,742 8,472,935
Bogotá  Colombia 6,776,009 7,881,156
Santiago  Chile 5,428,590 7,003,122
Guadalajara  Mexico 1,600,894 4 328 584[9]
Caracas  Venezuela 2,097,350 4,325,000[10]
Monterrey  Mexico 1,133,814 3,788,077
Medellín  Colombia 2,636,101 3,729,970
Guayaquil  Ecuador 2,432,233 3,328,534
Santo Domingo  Dominican Republic 1,111,838 3,310,171[11]
La Habana  Cuba 2,350,000 3,073,000
Guatemala City  Guatemala 942,348 2,945,080
Maracaibo  Venezuela 2,201,727 2,928,043
Cali  Colombia 2,068,386 2,530,796
San Juan  Puerto Rico 434,374 2,509,007
Puebla  Mexico 1,399,519 2,109,049
Asunción  Paraguay 680,250 2,089,651
Montevideo  Uruguay 1,325,968 1,868,335
Quito  Ecuador 1,397,698 1,842,201
Managua  Nicaragua 1,380,300 1,825,000
Barranquilla  Colombia 1,148,506 1,798,143
Santa Cruz  Bolivia 1,594,926 1,774,998
Valencia  Venezuela 894,204 1,770,000
Tegucigalpa  Honduras 1,230,000 1,600,000
La Paz  Bolivia 872,480 1,590,000
San Salvador  El Salvador 316,090 1,566,629
Tijuana  Mexico 1,286,187 1,553,000
Toluca  Mexico 467,712 1,531,000
Barquisimeto  Venezuela 1,116,000 1,500,000
León  Mexico 1,278,087 1,488,000
Córdoba  Argentina 1,309,536 1,452,000
Ciudad Juárez  Mexico 1,301,452 1,343,000
Tegucigalpa  Honduras 1,250,000 1,300,000
Maracay  Venezuela 1,007,000 1,300,000
San José  Costa Rica 386,799 1,284,000
Rosario  Argentina 908,163 1,203,000
Panama City  Panama 464,761 1,200,000
Torreón  Mexico 548,723 1,144,000
Bucaramanga  Colombia 516,512 1,055,331


History

The Spanish colonization of America began in 1492, and ultimately was part of a larger historical process of world colonialism, through which various European powers incorporated a considerable amount of territory and peoples in the Americas, Asia, and Africa between the 15th and 20th centuries. Hispanic America became the main part of the vast Spanish Empire.

Napoleon's takeover of Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the American territories began their struggle for emancipation. By 1830, the only remaining Spanish American colonies were the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War.

Flag of Hispanic America

While relatively unknown, there is a flag representing the countries of Hispanic America, its people, history and shared cultural legacy.

It was created in October 1933 by Ángel Camblor, captain of the Uruguayan army. It was adopted by all the states of Spanish America during the Pan-American Conference of the same year in Montevideo, Uruguay.[12]

The white background stands for peace, the Inti sun god of Inca mythology symbolizes the light shining on the American continent, and the three crosses represent Christopher Columbus' caravels, the Niña, Pinta, and Santa María, used in his first voyage from Spain to the New World in 1492. The deep lilac color of the crosses evokes the color of the lion on the Coat of Arms of the medieval Crown of Castile.[13]

See also

References

  1. All of the following dictionaries only list "Spanish America" as the name for this cultural region. None list "Hispanic America." All list the demonym for the people of the region discussed in this article as the sole definition, or one of the definitions, for "Spanish American". Some list "Hispanic," "Hispanic American" and "Hispano-American" as synonyms for "Spanish American." (All also include as a secondary definition for these last three terms, persons residing in the United States of Hispanic ancestry.) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.) (1992). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-44895-6. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) (2003). Springfield: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-807-9. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (2nd ed.) (1987). New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50050-4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (2007). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. Webster's New Dictionary and Thesaurus (2002). Cleveland: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-471-79932-0
  2. "Hispanic America" is used in some older works such as Charles Edward Chapman's 1933 Colonial Hispanic America: A History and 1937 Republican Hispanic America: A History (both New York: The Macmillan Co.); or translated titles that faithfully reproduce Hispanoamérica, such as Edmund Stephen Urbanski (1978), Hispanic America and its Civilization: Spanish Americans and Anglo-Americans, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
  3. . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2098.html. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  4. . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  5. "Latin America" The Free Online Dictionary (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000, 4th ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003.)
  6. Demografia de Chile.
  7. CIA. . . Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2119.html. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  8. CIA. . . Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2147.html. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  9. () CONEPO Jalisco. . Government of the State of Jalisco. http://coepo.jalisco.gob.mx/html/I_ZonaMetropolitanaGDL.html. Retrieved 20 January 2010. 
  10. Thomas Brinkoff -- The Principal Agglomerations of the World
  11. (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadística (ONE). http://one.gob.do/index.php?module=uploads&func=download&fileId=1477. Retrieved 2010-04-13.  Context page: http://one.gob.do/index.php?module=articles&function=view&ptid=12 ("Poblacion estimada y proyectada región provincia y municipio 2000-2010.xls")
  12. Image of the standard of the Crown of Castile