Jupiter

Jupiter  
A composite Cassini image of Jupiter. The dark spot is the shadow of Europa.
Designations
Pronunciation [1]
Adjective Jovian
Epoch J2000
Aphelion
Perihelion
Semi-major axis
Eccentricity 0.048775
Orbital period 4,331.572 days
11.85920 yr
10,475.8 Jupiter solar days[4]
Synodic period 398.88 days[5]
Average orbital speed 13.07 km/s[5]
Mean anomaly 18.818°
Inclination 1.305° to Ecliptic
6.09° to Sun's equator
0.32° to Invariable plane[6]
Longitude of ascending node 100.492°
Argument of perihelion 275.066°
Satellites 63
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius 71,492 ± 4 km[7][8]
11.209 Earths
Polar radius 66,854 ± 10 km[7][8]
10.517 Earths
Flattening 0.06487 ± 0.00015
Surface area 6.21796×1010 km²[8][9]
121.9 Earths
Volume 1.43128×1015 km³[5][8]
1321.3 Earths
Mass 1.8986×1027 kg[5]
317.8 Earths
1/1047 Sun[10]
Mean density 1.326 g/cm³[5][8]
Equatorial surface gravity 24.79 m/s²[5][8]
2.528 g
Escape velocity 59.5 km/s[5][8]
Sidereal rotation
period
9.925 h[11] (9 h 55 m 30 s)
Equatorial rotation velocity 12.6 km/s
45,300 km/h
Axial tilt 3.13°[5]
North pole right ascension 268.057°
17 h 52 min 14 s[7]
North pole declination 64.496°[7]
Albedo 0.343 (Bond)
0.52 (geom.)[5]
Surface temp.
1 bar level
0.1 bar
min mean max
165 K[5]
112 K[5]
Apparent magnitude -1.6 to -2.94[5]
Angular diameter 29.8" — 50.1"[5]
Atmosphere[5]
Surface pressure 20–200 kPa[12] (cloud layer)
Scale height 27 km
Composition
89.8±2.0% Hydrogen (H2)
10.2±2.0% Helium
~0.3% Methane
~0.026% Ammonia
~0.003% Hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0006% Ethane
0.0004% water
Ices:
Ammonia
water
ammonium hydrosulfide(NH4SH)
  1. Jupiter, entry in the Oxford English Dictionary, prepared by J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner, vol. 8, second edition, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. ISBN 0-19-861220-6 (vol. 8), ISBN 0-19-861186-2 (set.)
  2. Yeomans, Donald K. (2006-07-13). . NASA JPL. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons. Retrieved 2007-08-08.  — At the site, go to the "web interface" then select "Ephemeris Type: Elements", "Target Body: Jupiter Barycenter" and "Center: Sun".
  3. Orbital elements refer to the barycenter of the Jupiter system, and are the instantaneous osculating values at the precise J2000 epoch. Barycenter quantities are given because, in contrast to the planetary centre, they do not experience appreciable changes on a day-to-day basis from to the motion of the moons.
  4. Seligman, Courtney. . http://cseligman.com/text/sky/rotationvsday.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n
  6. . 2009-04-03. http://home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif. Retrieved 2009-04-10.  (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  7. a b c d Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, B. A.; A’Hearn, M. F.; et al. (2007). . Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 90: 155–180. . http://adsabs.harvard.edu/doi/10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  8. a b c d e f g Refers to the level of 1 bar atmospheric pressure
  9. . . 7 May 2008. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Jupiter&Display=Facts. 
  10. . JPL Solar System Dynamics. 2009-02-27. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?constants. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  11. Seidelmann, P. K.; Abalakin, V. K.; Bursa, M.; Davies, M. E.; de Burgh, C.; Lieske, J. H.; Oberst, J.; Simon, J. L.; Standish, E. M.; Stooke, P.; Thomas, P. C. (2001). . HNSKY Planetarium Program. http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  12. Anonymous (March 1983). . Galileo Messenger (NASA/JPL) (6). http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/messenger/oldmess/2Probe.html. Retrieved 2007-02-12. 

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System.[13] It is a gas giant with a mass slightly less than one-thousandth of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian planets.

The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. The Romans named the planet after the Roman god Jupiter.[14] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. (Mars can briefly match Jupiter's brightness at certain points in its orbit.)

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements. Because of its rapid rotation, Jupiter's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 63 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these moons, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. The most recent probe to visit Jupiter was the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft in late February 2007. The probe used the gravity from Jupiter to increase its speed. Future targets for exploration in the Jovian system include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the moon Europa.

Structure

Jupiter is composed primarily of gaseous and liquid matter. It is the largest of four gas giants as well as the largest planet in the solar system with a diameter of 142,984 km at its equator. The density of Jupiter, 1.326 g/cm³, is the second highest of the gas giant planets. However, the density is lower than any of the four terrestrial planets.

Composition

Jupiter's upper atmosphere is composed of about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume or fraction of gas molecules (see table to the right). Since a helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus the atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements. The interior contains denser materials such that the distribution is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium and 5% other elements by mass. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia.[15][16] Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found.[17]

The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are very close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. However, neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun.[18] Helium is also depleted, although only to about 80% of the Sun's helium composition. This depletion may be a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet.[19] Abundances of heavier inert gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are about two to three times that of the Sun.

Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other gas giants Uranus and Neptune have relatively much less hydrogen and helium.[20] However, because of the lack of atmospheric entry probes, high quality abundance numbers of the heavier elements are lacking for the outer planets beyond Jupiter.

Mass

Jupiter is 2.5 times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined—this is so massive that its barycenter with the Sun lies above the Sun's surface at 1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center. Although this planet dwarfs the Earth with a diameter 11 times as great, it is considerably less dense. Jupiter's volume is equal to 1,321 Earths, yet the planet is only 318 times as massive.[5][21] Jupiter has a radius equal to 0.10 times the radius of the Sun,[22] and has a mass of 0.001 times the mass of the Sun, making them approximately equal in density.[23] A "Jupiter mass" (MJ or MJup) is often used as a unit to describe masses of other objects, particularly extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. So, for example, the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b has a mass of 0.69 MJ, while COROT-7b has a mass of 0.015 MJ.[24] Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, the planet would shrink. For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about four Jupiter masses the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased gravitation force that the planet's volume would decrease despite the increasing amount of matter. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. The process of further shrinkage with increasing mass would continue until appreciable stellar ignition is achieved as in high-mass brown dwarfs around 50 Jupiter masses.[25] This has led some astronomers to term it a "failed star", although it is unclear whether the processes involved in the formation of planets like Jupiter are similar to the processes involved in the formation of multiple star systems. Although Jupiter would need to be about 75 times as massive to fuse hydrogen and become a star, the smallest red dwarf is only about 30 percent larger in radius than Jupiter.[26][27] Despite this, Jupiter still radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun. The amount of heat produced inside the planet is nearly equal to the total solar radiation it receives.[28] This additional heat radiation is generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism through adiabatic contraction. This process results in the planet shrinking by about 2 cm each year.[29] When it was first formed, Jupiter was much hotter and was about twice its current diameter.[30]