|Anthem: National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic
(and largest city)
|Official language(s)||Kyrgyz (State)
|Ethnic groups||68.9% Kyrgyz
|-||Prime Minister||Almazbek Atambayev|
|-||Speaker of Parliament||Akhmatbek Keldibekov|
|Independence||from the Soviet Union|
|-||Established||14 October 1924|
|-||Kirghiz SSR||5 December 1936|
|-||Declared||31 August 1991|
|-||Completed||25 December 1991|
|-||Total||199,900 km2 (86th)
77,181 sq mi
|-||2009 estimate||5,482,000 (110th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2009 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2009 estimate|
|Gini (2003)||30.3 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||0.710 (medium) (120th)|
|Time zone||KGT (UTC+6)|
|Drives on the||right|
Kyrgyzstan ( , , or ; Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан ; Russian: Кыргызстан ), officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the six independent Turkic states together with Turkey, The Republic of Azerbaijan (not to be confused with the province of Azerbaijan in Iran), Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Located in Central Asia, landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and People's Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.
"Kyrgyz", is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghers. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghers dominated much of Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, and parts of Russia and China.
By extension, Kyrgyz is also thought to mean "unconquerable" or "undefeatable".
The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown of a yurt -- a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.
In the 8th century Arab invaders conquered Central Asia, including what is now Kyrgyzstan, and introduced Islam. The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khanate in 840 A.D. Then the Kyrgyz quickly moved as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years.
In the twelfth century, however, the Kyrgyz domination had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Kyrgyz were conquered by Genghis Khan in 1207.
Chinese and Muslim sources of the 7th–12th centuries AD describe the early Kyrgyz as red-haired with white skin and blue eyes, features that were interpreted as suggestive of Slavic origins. The descent of the Kyrgyz from the autochthonous Siberian population is confirmed on the other hand by the recent genetic studies. Because of the processes of migration, conquest, intermarriage, and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples that now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins, often stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they speak closely related languages. The genetic admixture of the Uzbeks clusters somewhere between the Mongols and the Iranian peoples.
Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for travelers from the Far East to Europe. Many historians believe that the lake was the point of origin for the Black Death that plagued Europe and Asia during the early and mid-14th century.
In the late nineteenth century, the majority part of what is today Kyrgyzstan was ceded to Russia through two treaties between China (then Qing Dynasty) and Russia. The territory, then known in Russian as "Kirgizia", was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1876. The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts against Tsarist authority, and many of the Kyrgyz opted to move to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan.
In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz later to migrate to China. Since many ethnic groups in the region were (and still are) split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better; this might mean better rains for pasture or better government during oppression.