List of archaeological periods (North America)

North American archaeological periods divides the history of pre-Columbian North America into a number of named successive eras or periods, from the earliest evidence of human habitation through to the early Colonial period which followed the European colonization of the Americas.

Contents


Stage Classification

One of the most enduring classifications of archaeological periods & cultures was established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into 5 phases.[1] However this divisions have been replaced in most of North America by more local classifications with a more elaborate time breakdown.[2]

1. The Paleo-Indians stage and/or Lithic stage
2. The Archaic stage
3. Post-archaic stage - At this point the North America classifications system differs from the rest of the Americas.

For more detail on the five major stages, which are still in use in Mesoamerican archaeology, see Mesoamerican chronology and Archaeology of the Americas.

Table of archaeological periods North America

Paleo Indians (Lithic stage)
(18000 BCE - 8000 BCE)
Clovis culture
Western Fluted Point Tradition c. 11200 BCE - 9000 BCE, California
Post Pattern c. 11000 BCE - 7000 BCE, NW California
Folsom tradition c. 9000 BCE - 8000 BCE
Dalton Tradition c. 8500 BCE - 7900 BCE
Archaic period, (Archaic stage)
(8000 BCE - 1000 BCE)
by Time Period Early Archaic8000 BCE - 6000 BCE Plano cultures
Paleo-Arctic Tradition 8000 BCE - 5000 BCE
Maritime Archaic
Red Paint People
Middle Archaic6000 BCE - 3000 BCE Chihuahua tradition c. 6000 BCE - c. 250 CE
Late Archaic3000 BCE - 1000 BCE Arctic Small Tool tradition 2500 BCE - 800 BCE
Aleutian tradition 2500 BCE - 1800 BCE
by location Great Basin Desert Archaic
Middle Archaic
Late Archaic
Great Lakes Old Copper Complex c. 4000 BCE - c. 1000 BCE
Mesoamerica Mexican Archaic
Southwest: Southwestern Archaic Traditions San Dieguito-Pinto tradition c. 6500 BCE - c. 200 CE
Chihuahua (Southeastern) Tradition c. 6000 BCE - c. 250 CE
Oshara (Northern) Tradition c. 5500 BCE - c. 600 CE
Cochise Tradition 5000 BCE - 200 BCE
California Millingstone Horizon (or Encinitas Tradition) c. 5500 BCE - 1500 BCE
Intermediate Horizon (or Campbell Tradition) c. 1500 BCE - 1000 CE
Post-archaic period, (Post-archaic stage)
(1000 BCE - Present)
in North Norton tradition Choris Stage c. 1000 BCE - 500 BCE
Norton 500 BCE - 800 CE
Ipiutak Stage 1 CE - 800 CE
Dorset culture 500 BCE - 1500 CE
Thule people 1000 CE - 1600 CE
in Southwestand by Pecos Classification Early Basketmaker II Era 1200 BCE - 50 CE
Late Basketmaker II Era 50 CE - 500 CE
Basketmaker III Era 500 CE - 750 CE
Pueblo I Era 750 CE - 900 CE
Pueblo II Era 900 CE - 1150 CE
Pueblo III Era 1150 CE - 1350 CE
Pueblo IV Era 1350 CE - 1600 CE
Pueblo V Era 1600 CE - Present
in Southwestand by peoples Ancient Pueblo Peoples (Anasazi) 1 CE - 1300 CE
Hohokam 200 CE - 1450 CE
Fremont 400 CE - 1350 CE
Patayan 700 CE - 1550 CE
Mogollon 700 CE - 1400 CE
in Eastand by peoples Early Woodland Period
1000 BCE - 1 CE
Adena culture 1000 BCE - 100 BCE
Deptford culture 800 BCE - 200 CE
Middle Woodland Period
1 - 500
Hopewell culture 200 BCE - 400 CE
Havana Hopewell culture (a Hopewellian culture) 200 BCE to 400 CE
Kansas City Hopewell (a Hopewellian culture) 100 BCE – 700 CE
Swift Creek culture (a Hopewellian culture) 100 - 500
Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture (a Hopewellian culture) 100 - 300
Marksville culture (a Hopewellian culture) 1 - 400 CE
Fourche Maline culture 300 BCE to 800 CE
Copena culture (a Hopewellian culture) 1 - 500 CE
Late Woodland Period
500 - 1000
Baytown culture 300 - 700 CE
Coles Creek culture 700 - 1100 CE
Plum Bayou culture 400 - 900 CE
Mississippian culture900 - 1500(ending with European contact) Early Mississippian culture 1000 - 1200 CE
Middle Mississippian culture 1200 - 1400 CE
Late Mississippian culture 1400 - 1500 CE(or European contact)
Fort Ancient (a non-Mississippian culture) 1000 - 1550 CE
in Florida and adjacent parts of Alabama and Georgia, by culture Weeden Island culture
100 - 1000 CE
Cades Pond culture 100 - 700 CE
Kolomaki culture 350 - 750
McKeithen Weeden Island culture 200 - 700
Weeden Island I 200 - 750
Weeden Island II 750 - 1000
Wakulla culture 750 - 1000
Fort Walton culture a Mississippian culture 1000 - European contact
Pensacola culture 1250 - European contact
Suwannee Valley culture 750 - European contact
Alachua culture 700 - European contact
Manasota culture 550 BCE - 800 CE
Safety Harbor culture 800 - European contact
Caloosahatchee culture 500 BCE - European contact
St. Johns culture 550 BCE - European contact
Belle Glade culture 1050 BCE - European contact
Glades culture 550 BCE - European contact

Culture, phase, and chronological table for the Mississippi Valley

Lower Mississippi Periods Lower Yazoo Phases Lower Yazoo
Dates
Tensas/Natchez Phases Cahokia Phases Cahokia Dates Ohio/Miss. River Confluence Phases Ohio/Miss.Dates
Historic Russell 1650 - 1750 CE Tensas/Natchez Vacant
Quarter
1350 CE -
European Contact
Jackson Phase 1500-1650 CE
Plaquemine/Mississippian culture
Late Plaquemine/Mississippian
Middle Plaquemine/Mississippian
Early Plaquemine/Mississippian
Wasp Lake 1400-1650 CE Translyvania/Emerald
Lake George 1300-1400 CE Fitzhugh/Foster Sand Prairie 1275-1350 CE Medley Phase 1300-1500 CE
Winterville 1200-1300 CE Routh/Anna Moorehead 1200-1275 CE Dorena Phase 1100-1300 CE
Transitional Coles Creek Crippen Point 1050-1200 CE Preston/Gordon Lohmann
Sterling
1050-1200 CE
Coles Creek culture
Late Coles Creek
Middle Coles Creek
Early Coles Creek
Kings Crossing 950-1050 CE Balmoral Terminal Late
Woodland
900 - 1050 CE James Bayou
Phase
900-1100 CE
Aden 800-950 CE Ballina
Bayland 600-800 CE Sundown Late
Woodland
400 - 900 CE Cane Hills Phase
Berkley Phase
600 - 900 CE
400 - 600 CE
Baytown culture
Baytown 2
Baytown 1
Deasonville 500-600 CE Marsden
Little Sunflower 400-500 CE Indian Bayou
Marksville culture
Late Marksville
Early Marksville
Issaquena 200-400 CE Issaquena Middle
Woodland
200 BCE - 400 CE La Plant
Burkett
100 BCE-400 CE
550-100 BCE
Anderson
Landing
0-200 CE Point Lake/
Grand Gulf
Tchefuncte culture Tuscola 400 BCE-0 CE Panther Lake
Jaketown Poverty Point 700- 400 BCE Frasier Early Woodland 700-200 BCE O'Bryan Ridge 700-550 BCE
- 1000-700 BCE Late Archaic 1000 - 200 BCE

Notes

  1. Lower Mississippi, Lower Yazoo, and Tensas/Natchez table taken from "Emerging Patterns of Plum Bayou Culture:Preliminary Investigations of the Toltec Mounds Research Project", by Martha Ann Rolingson, 1982, Pg-66.[3]
  2. Cahokia phases and dates taken from "Ancient Cahokia and the Mississippians", by Pauketat, Timothy R., 2004, Pp-6.[4].
  3. Ohio and Mississippi River Confluence Phases and dates taken from "Kentucky Archaeology", edited by R. Barry Lewis, 1996, Pg - 16.[5]

References

  1. Gordon R. Willey and Philip Phillips (1957). . University of Chicago Press. . 
  2. Gibbon, Guy E; Ames, Kenneth M (1998). . pp. 638–639. . 
  3. Rolingson, Martha Ann (1982). . Arkansas Archaeological Survey. p. 66. . 
  4. Pauketat, Timothy R. (2004). . Cambridge University Press. p. 6. . 
  5. Lewis, R. Barry (1996). . University Press of Kentucky. . 

Bibliography

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See also