|Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: It is tossed by the waves, but does not sink)|
|Paris, with the Eiffel Tower in the foreground and the skyscrapers of La Défense in the background|
|City flag||City coat of arms|
|Mayor||Bertrand Delanoë (PS)|
|Land area1 |
|Population2||2193031 (Jan. 2007)|
|- Ranking||1st in France|
|- Population||10,197,678 (Jan. 2007)|
|- Population||11,836,970 (Jan. 2007)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC +1)|
|INSEE/Postal code||75056/ 75001-75020, 75116|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
|2 Population sans doubles comptes: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.|
> 0 ^
Paris ( in French, in English) is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region (or Paris Region, French: Région parisienne). The city of Paris, within its administrative limits largely unchanged since 1860, has an estimated population of 2,193,031 (January 2007), but the Paris metropolitan area has a population of 11,836,970 (January 2007), and is one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe.
In 2009 and 2010 Paris has been ranked among the three most important and influential cities in the world, among the first three "European cities of the future" – according to a research published by Financial Times –  and among the top ten cities in the world in which to live according to the British review Monocle (June 2010). An important settlement for more than two millennia, Paris is today one of the world's leading business and cultural centres, and its influences in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Paris also ranks among the 10 greenest European cities in 2010
Paris and the Paris Region, with €552.1 bn (US$768.9 bn) in 2009, produces more than a quarter of the gross domestic product (GDP) of France. According to 2007 estimates, the Paris agglomeration is Europe's biggest city economy and the fifth largest in the world. The Paris Region hosts 37 of the Fortune Global 500 companies in several business districts, notably La Défense, the largest purpose-built business district in Europe. Paris also hosts many international organizations such as UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the informal Paris Club. According to the latest survey from Economist Intelligence Unit in 2010, Paris is the world's most expensive city to live in.
Paris and its region are the most popular tourist destination in the world with 45 million tourists annually, 27 million of whom are foreign visitors. The city and region contain numerous iconic landmarks, particularly the Eiffel Tower, as well as world-famous institutions and popular parks.
The earliest archaeological signs of permanent settlements in the Paris area date from around 4200 BC. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the area near the river Seine from around 250 BC. The Romans conquered the Paris basin in 52 BC, with a permanent settlement by the end of the same century on the Left Bank Sainte Geneviève Hill and the Île de la Cité. The Gallo-Roman town was originally called Lutetia, but later Gallicised to Lutèce. It expanded greatly over the following centuries, becoming a prosperous city with a forum, palaces, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre.
The collapse of the Roman empire and the 5th-century Germanic invasions sent the city into a period of decline. By 400 AD, Lutèce, largely abandoned by its inhabitants, was little more than a garrison town entrenched into a hastily fortified central island. The city reclaimed its original appellation of "Paris" towards the end of the Roman occupation.
The Paris region was under full control of the Germanic Franks by the late 5th century. The Frankish king Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. The late 8th century Carolingian dynasty displaced the Frankish capital to Aachen; this period coincided with the beginning of Viking invasions that had spread as far as Paris by the early 9th century. Repeated invasions forced Parisians to build a fortress on the Ile de la Cité; one of the most remarkable Viking raids was on March 28, 845, when Paris was sacked and held ransom, probably by Ragnar Lodbrok, who left only after receiving a large bounty paid by the crown. The weakness of the late Carolingian kings of France led to the gradual rise in power of the Counts of Paris; Odo, Count of Paris was elected king of France by feudal lords, and the end of the Carolingian empire was finalised in 987, when Hugh Capet, count of Paris, was elected king of France. Paris, under the Capetian kings, became a capital once more.