The I Tarapacá Region (Spanish: I Región de Tarapacá) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions. It borders the Chilean Arica and Parinacota Region to the north, Bolivia's Oruro Department on the east, the Antofagasta Region on the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Chile's former Tarapacá region was a former Peruvian province, which was annexed by Chile under the 1883 Treaty of Ancón at the close of the War of the Pacific. The present day Tarapacá Region was created by subdividing the former Tarapacá Region under Law 20.175, which was signed by President Michelle Bachelet in Arica on October 8, 2007.
The government of the region resides in the intendant, who is assigned by the president. Each of the region's two provinces are further subdivided into communes.
A desert climate dominates the region. Near the coast, cloudiness can limit the temperature swing throughout the day, but in other drier areas, temperatures can vary greatly as is typical in deserts. A marginal desert region can be found over above sea level, which sees milder temperatures and summer rains.