Tejeros Convention

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[[|view]]·[[|talk]]·edit |} The Tejeros Convention (alternate names include Tejeros Assembly and Tejeros Congress) was the meeting held between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the Katipunan at San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite which on March 22, 1897. This is the first presidential and vice presidential elections in Philippine history, although only the Katipuneros (members of the Katipunan) and not the general populace were able to take part.

Purpose and results

The convention was called upon to discuss the defense of Cavite against the Spaniards during the Philippine Revolution. Instead, the convention became an election to decide the leaders of the revolutionary movement, bypassing the Supreme Council.

Andrés Bonifacio, the current Supremo (supreme leader) of the Katipunan presided the election. He secured the unanimous approval that the decision will not be questioned.

The results of the election:

Position Name
President Emilio Aguinaldo
Vice-President Mariano Trías
Captain-General Artemio Ricarte
Director of War Emiliano Riego de Dios
Director of the Interior Andrés Bonifacio

Aguinaldo, who was busy at a military front in Imus, won the election. Bonifacio's position fell to Director of the Interior.

Bonifacio, who was not formally educated, accepted the decision. However, Daniel Tirona, a Caviteño (a native of Cavite), objected that the post should not be occupied by a person without a lawyer's diploma. He suggested a Caviteño lawyer, Jose del Rosario for the position. Bonifacio, clearly insulted, demanded that Tirona retract the remark. When Tirona made to dleave instead, Bonifacio drew a pistol and was about to fire at Tirona, but stopped when Ricarte grabbed his arm. Bonifacio then voided the convention as Supremo of the Katipunan.[1]

Allegations of Fraud

In addition to Bonifacio's statement voiding the outcome the probity of the election held has been questioned, with allegations that many ballots distributed were already filled out and that the voters had not done this themselves.[2]


  1. Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1990) [1960]. (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing. p. 178. ISBN 971-8711-06-6. 
  2. Ambeth Ocampo, Election fraud at the Tejeros Convention (November 5, 2007), Philippine Daily Inquirer.