Turin King List

Redirected from Turin Royal Canon

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum)[1] at Turin. The papyrus is believed to be the most extensive list of kings compiled by the Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Creation and Use

The papyrus is believed to date from the reign of Ramesses II, during the middle of the New Kingdom, or the 19th Dynasty. The beginning and ending of the list are now lost; there is no introduction, and the list does not continue after the 19th Dynasty. The composition may thus have occurred at any subsequent time, from the reign of Ramesses II to as late as the 20th Dynasty.

The papyrus lists the names of rulers, the lengths of reigns in years, and months and days for individual kings. In some cases they are grouped together by family, which approximately corresponds to the dynasties of Manetho’s outline. The list includes the names of ephemeral rulers or those ruling over small territories that may be unmentioned in other sources.

The list also is believed to contain kings from the 15th Dynasty, which were the Hyksos ruling Lower Egypt and the Delta. Although the Hyksos rulers do not have cartouches, a hieroglyphic sign is added to indicate that they were foreigners. Typically on King Lists foreign rulers are not listed.

The papyrus was originally a tax roll, but on its back is written a list of rulers of Egypt – encompassing gods, demi-gods, spirits, and human kings. That the back of an older papyrus was used may indicate that the list was not of great formal importance to the writer, although the primary function of the list is thought to have been as an administrative aid. The papyrus, being a king list, is not supposed to be biased against certain rulers and is believed to contain all the kings of Egypt up through at least the 19th Dynasty.

Discovery and Reconstruction

The papyrus was found by the Italian traveler Bernardino Drovetti in 1820 at Luxor (Thebes), Egypt and was acquired in 1824 by the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy and was designated papyrus no. 1874. When the box in which it had been transported to Italy was unpacked, the list had disintegrated into small fragments. Jean-Francois Champollion, examining it, could recognize only some of the larger fragments containing royal names, and produced a drawing of what he could decipher. A reconstruction of the list was created to better understand it and to aid in research.

The Saxon researcher Gustav Seyffarth re-examined the fragments, some only one square centimeter in size, and made a more complete reconstruction of the papyrus based only on the papyrus fibers, as he could not yet determine the meaning of the hieratic characters. Subsequent work on the fragments was done by the Munich Egyptologist Jens Peter Lauth, which largely confirmed the Seyffarth reconstruction.

In 1997 prominent Egyptologist Kim Ryholt published a new and better interpretation of the list in his book, "The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C." Following another study of the papyrus, an updated version from Ryholt is expected. Egyptologist Donald Redford has also studied the papyrus and has noted that although much of the list’s names correspond to monuments and documents, there are some discrepancies. Not all of the names on the list line up with monuments and documents, questioning the absolute reliability of the document as the foundation of pre-Ramessses II chronology.

Despite attempts at reconstruction, approximately 50% of the papyrus remains missing. This papyrus as presently constituted is 1.7 m long and 0.41 m high, broken into over 160 fragments. In 2009 previously unpublished fragments were discovered in the storage room of the Egyptian Museum of Turin, in good condition http://www.lastampa.it/_web/cmstp/tmplrubriche/arte/grubrica.asp?ID_blog=62&ID_articolo=1164&ID_sezione=117&sezione=News. A new edition of the papyrus is expected.

Contents of the papyrus

The papyrus is divided into eleven columns, distributed as follows. The names and positions of several kings are still being disputed, since the list is so heavily damaged.

  • Column 1 — Gods of Ancient Egypt
  • Column 2 — Rows 1-10 Spirits and mythical kings
  • Column 2 — Rows 11-25 (Dynasties 1-2)
  • Column 3 — Rows 1-25 (Dynasties 2-5)
  • Column 4 — Rows 1-26 (Dynasties 6-8/9/10)
  • Column 5 — Rows 12-25 (Dynasties 11-12)
  • Column 6 — Rows 1-2 (Dynasties 12-13)
  • Column 7 — Rows 1-23 (Dynasty 13)
  • Column 8 — Rows 1-27 (Dynasty 13-14)
  • Column 9 — Rows 1-30 (Dynasty 14)
  • Column 10 — Rows 1-30 (Dynasties 14-15)
  • Column 11 — Rows 1-17 (Dynasties 16-17)

These are the actual names written on the papyrus, omitting the years, summations and headings:

Second Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
11 Menes Meni mni <-Y5:N35-M17->
12 Hor-Aha Teti ttij <-X1:X1-M17-Z4->
13 Djer Iti, Ita iti <-M17-X1-//-G7->
15 Djet Itui ı͗jtjwi <-//-G4#12-M17->
16 Den Qenti qntj <-Aa8:X1*Z4->
17 Anedjib Merbiapen mrbiꜣpnı͗j <-U7:D21-U17-Q3:N35-//->
18 Semerkhet Semsem smsm <-S29-G17-S29-G17->
19 Qa'a (Qe)beh ı͗jbḥ <-//-D58-V28-G7->
20 Hotepsekhemwy Baunetjer bꜣwnṯr <-//-G30-R4:Q3-G7->
21 Nebre Kakau kꜣkꜣw <-//-E2-D52:Z1*Z1*Z1-G7->
22 Nynetjer ..netjeren ı͗jnṯrrn <-//-R8-D21:N35-G7->
23 Wadjnes ..s ı͗js <-//-//-S29-G7->
24 Senedj Sened.. snḏı͗j <-G54-//->
25 Neferkara I Aaka ꜥꜣkꜣ <-O29-D28-Z1->
Third Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
2 Neferkasokar Neferkasokar nfrkꜣskr <-F35-D28-Z1-O34:V31:D21-Z5-G7->
3 Khasekhemwy Bebti bbtj <-D58-D58-N21-G7->
4 Sanakhte Nebka nbkꜣ <-V30-D28-Z1->
5 Djoser Djoser..it ḏsr..it <-D45:D21-M17-.:X1#12-G7->
6 Sekhemkhet Djoserti ḏsrti <-D45:D21-X1:Z4-G7->
7 Khaba Hudjefa ḥwḏfꜣ <-O34-I10-S29->
8 Huni Huni ḥwni <-V28-Z5-A25-//-G7->
9 Sneferu Senefer snfr <-S29-F35-I9:D21-G7->
10 Khufu //-//
11 Djedefre <-//-//-G7->
12 Khafre ..kha.. ı͗jḫꜥı͗j <-//-N28-D36-//-G7->
13 Baka <-//-//-G7->
14 Menkaure <-//-//-G7->
15 Shepseskaf <-//-//-G7->
16 Unknown
17 Userkaf ..kaf ı͗jkaf <-//-//-D28:I9-G7->
18 Sahure
19 Neferirkare
20 Shepseskare
21 Neferefre
22 Nyuserre
23 Menkauhor Menkahor mnkꜣḥr G5-<-G7-Y5:N35-D28-Z1-G7->
24 Djedkare Djed ḏd <-R11-R11->
25 Unas Unis wnis <-E34:N35-M17-S29->
Fourth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Teti
2 Userkare
3 Pepi
4 Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
5 Pepi II
6 Merenre Nemtyemsaf II
7 Lost
8 Neterikare Neitiqerty ntiqrti <-N35:X1*Z5-M17-N29-D21:X1*Z4-G7->
9 Menkare Neferka nfrkꜣ <-F35-D28-Z1-G7->
10 Neferkare Nefer nfr <-F35-I9:D21-G7->
11 Ibi Ibi ibj <-M17-D58-E8->
12 Lost
13 Lost
18 Lost
19 Lost
20 Neferkare Neferkare nfrkꜣrꜥ <-N5-F35-D28-Z1-G7#12->
21 Khety Khety ẖti <-F32:X1-A50-M17-M17-G7->
22 Senenh.. Senenh.. snnhı͗j <-S29-M22-M22-N35:N35-A53-.:O4-//>
23 Lost
24 Mer.. Mer.. mrrı͗j <-U7:D21-//->
25 Shed.. Shed.. šdı͗j <-F30:D46#24-//->
26 H.. H.. ḥı͗j <-V28-//->
Fifth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Lost
2 Lost
3 Lost
4 Lost
5 Lost
6 Lost
7 Lost
8 Lost
9 Lost
12 Mentuhotep I Wah.. wꜣḥı͗j <-V28#1234-//->
13 Intef I
14 Intef II ..n.. ı͗jnı͗j <-//-N35-//->
15 Intef III
16 Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre nbhptrꜥ <-N5:V30-P8->
17 Mentuhotep III Seankhkare sꜥnḫkꜣı͗j <-S29#34-S34#34-N35:Aa1-D28#34->
20 Amenemhat I ..pib.. ı͗jpibı͗j <-//-.:Q3-.:F34-.:Z1-G7->
21 Sesostris I ..ka.. ı͗jkꜣı͗j <-//-D28-Z1->
22 Amenemhat II
23 Sesostris II
24 Sesostris III
25 Amenemhat III
Sixth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Amenemhat IV Maakherure mꜣꜥḫrwrꜥ <-N5-U5:D36-P8-V1-A2->
5 Wegaf Khutawire ḫwtꜣwirꜥ <-N5-D43:N17:N17#1234->
6 Amenemhat V Sekhemkare sḫmkꜣrꜥ <-N5#123-Y8#1234-D28#1234-Z1->
7 Amenemhat Amenemhat..re rꜥı͗jmnnḥꜣt N5-Y5:.#34-G17-F4:X1*Z1-G7
8 Sehetepibre II Sehetepibre shtpibrꜥ N5-S29-R4:X1*Q3-F34
9 Iufni Iufeni iwfni i-Z7-f-n:A1
10 Amenemhat VI Seankhibre sꜥnḫibrꜥ ra-s-anx-ib
11 Semenkare Semenkare smnkꜣrꜥ ra-s-mn:n-kA
12 Sehetepibre III Sehetepibre sḥtpibrꜥ N5-s-R4:t*p-ib-Z1
13 Sewadjkare Sewadjkare swꜣḏkꜣrꜥ ra-s-wAD-kA
14 Nedjemibre Nedjemibre ndmibrꜥ ra-nDm-m-mDAt-ib
15 Sobekhotep I Sebek..p..re sbkı͗jpı͗jrꜥ //-N5-I4-//
16 Renseneb Renseneb rn..nbw r:n-A2-//-n:b-Y1
17 Awybre Hor I Autibre ꜣwtibrꜥ ra-Aw-Z7:t-Y1:Z2-ib-Z1
18 Amenemhat VII Sedjefakare sḏfꜣı͗jkꜣrꜥ ra-s-D:f-A-//-kA
19 Sobekhotep II Amenemhatsebekhotep imnmhꜣtsbkḥtp M17-Y5:N35-G17-F4:X1-I4-R4:X1-Q3
20 Khendjer User..re ..djer wsrı͗jrꜥı͗jḫnḏr N5-F12-//-Z1-N5:N35-M36:D21
21 Imyremeshaw ..kare ı͗jkꜣrꜥ <-N5-//-D28-G7->
22 Intef IV ..re ı͗jre //-D28-Z1-G7-W25:N35-X1:I9-G7
23 Seth ..ibre..seth ..ibrꜥ..stẖ //-F34-Z1-G7-C7-G7
24 Sobekhotep III Sekhem..re..sebekhotep sḫmı͗jrꜥı͗jsbkḥtp N5-Y8-//-I5-Htp:t-p
25 Neferhotep I Khamaatreneferhotep ḫꜥmꜣꜥtrꜥnfrḥtp N5-N28:D36:Y1-//-F35-R4:X1-Q3
26 Sahathor (Re)Sahathor rꜥsꜣḥtḥr <-N5-O6-X1:O1-G5-G7-G38-Z1-G7->
27 Sobekhotep IV Khaneferre-Sobekhotep ḫꜥnfrrꜥsbkḥtp <-N5-N28:D36-Y1-F35-I3-R4:X1-Q3->
Seventh Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Sebekhotep V Khaheteprehotep ḫꜥḥtprꜥḥtp N5-N28:D36*Y1-R4:X1-Q3-G7
2 Wahibre Ibiau Wahibreibiau wꜣḥibrꜥibiaw ra-wAH-H-Y1-ib-Z1-i-a:mw-A24-ib-Z1
3 Merneferre Ay Merneferre mrnfrrꜥ N5-U7:D21-F35
4 Sebekhotep VI Merhetepre mriḥtprꜥ N5-U6-R4:X1*Q3
5 Sankhenre Sewadjtu Seankhenresewadjtu sꜥnḫnrꜥswꜣḏtw ra-s-anx-n:x-n-s-wAD-t-Z7
6 Neferhotep II Mersekhemre Ined mrsḫmrꜥind ra-U7:r-sxm-Z1-i-in:n-d:wr
7 Hori Sewadjkare Hori swꜣḏkꜣrꜥḥri N5-S29-M13-S28-Z1-G7-G5-M17
8 Sebekhotep VII Merkaure Sebek.. mrkꜣwrꜥsbkı͗j N5-U7:D21-Z1-D28-Z1-//-I3-//
9 Lost
10 Lost
11 Lost
12 Lost
13 Djedneferre Dudimose ..mose ı͗jmss //-F31-S29-Z5
14 Ibi ..maat..re Ibi ı͗jmꜣꜥtrꜥibi <-N5-//-X1-H6->-G7-M17-E8-M17-A1
15 Hor ı͗jwebenre Hor rꜥı͗jwbn ḥr <-N5-//-G43-D58-N35:N5->-G7-G5
16 Se..kare Se?..kare ı͗jkꜣrꜥ N5-S29-//-D28-Z1-G7
17 Senebmiu ..enre ..enrꜥ N5-//-Y1:N35
18 Lost
19 Lost
20 Sekhaenre ? ? <-//-Y1:.#34-G7->
21 Lost
22 Merkheperre Merkheperre mrḫprrꜥ N5-U7:D21-L1
23 Merkare Merka.. //-U7:.#234-D28-Z1
Eighth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Nehesy Nehesy nḥsi G21-V28-S29-Z4-T14
2 Khatyre Khatyre ḫꜥititrꜥ N5-N28:D36*Y1-U33-Z4
3 Nebfautre Nebfaure nbfꜣwrꜥ N5-V30:I9-F40-Z7:X1-Y1:Z2
4 Sehabre Sehabre sḥbrꜥ N5-S29-V28-b-W3:N5
5 Merdjefare Merdjefare mrḏfꜣrꜥ N5-U7:D21-G42-G41:G37
6 Sewadjkare Sewadjkare swꜣḏkꜣrꜥ N5-S29-M13-D28-Z1
7 Nebdjefare Neb("erased")re nbḏfꜣwrꜥ N5-N5:V30-I10:I9-G42-Z7-G41:G37
8 Webenre Webenre wbnrꜥ N5-Z7-D58-N35:N5-G7
9 Lost
10 ..re ("erased")re rꜥı͗jḏfꜣw N5-//-G41:G37
11 ..webenre ı͗jwbnı͗j //-D58#3-N35:N5-G7
12 Autibre Autibre ꜣwtibrꜥ N5-F40-Z7:X1-Y1:Z2-F34-Z1
13 Heribre Heribre hribrꜥ N5-O4-D21:Y1-F34-Z1
14 Renebsen Renebsen nbsnrꜥ N5-V30-S29-N35:Z2
15 Lost
16 Sekheperenre Sekheperenre sḫprnrꜥ N5-S29-L1-D21:N35
17 Djedkherure Djedkherure ḏdḫrwrꜥ N5-R11-G7-P8-Z7
18 Seankhibre Seankhibre sꜥnḫibrꜥ N5-S29-S34-N35:Aa1-F34-Z1
19 Kanefertemre (Ka)nefertemre ı͗jnfrtmrꜥ N5-F35-X1:U15-//-G7
20 Sekhem..re Sekhem..re sḫmı͗jrꜥ N5-S42-G17-//
21 Kakemure Ka..kemure kꜣı͗jkmwrꜥ N5-D28-D52:E1-//-I6-Z7:X1-E1
22 Neferibre Neferib..re rꜥnfribı͗j N5-F35-F34-//
23 I..re I..re iı͗jrꜥ N5-M17-A2-//
24 Kha..re Kha..re ḫaı͗jrꜥı͗j N5-N28:D36*Y1-//
25 Aakare Aakare ꜥꜣkꜣrꜥ N5-O29v-D28-//
26 Semen..re Semen..re smnı͗jrꜥı͗j N5-S29-Y5:N35-//
27 Djed..re Djed..re ḏdı͗jrꜥ <-N5-R11-R11-//
Ninth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Lost N5-//
2 Lost
3 Lost
4 Lost
5 Lost N5-//
6 Lost N5-//
7 Senefer..re Senefer..re snfrı͗jrꜥ N5-S29-F35-//
8 Men..re Men(ib)..re mnı͗jraı͗j N5-Y5:N35-ib*Z1#1234
9 Djed.. Djed.. ḏdı͗j R11*R11#34-//
10 Lost
11 Lost
12 Lost
13 Lost
14 Inenek Inenek innkı͗j M17-K1:N35:V31A-//
15 Ineb Ineb inbı͗j M17-A1-V30-//
16 Ip.. Ip.. ipı͗j M17-A1-Q3-//
17 Hab Hab hꜣb M17-O4-G1-D58
18 Sa Sa sꜣ G39-Z1
19 Hepu Hepu ḥpw Aa5:Q3-Z7-E1
20 Shemsu Shemsu šmsw T18-S29-Z7-D54
21 Meni Meni mni Y5:N35-M17-//
22 Werqa.. werqa.. wrkꜣı͗j G36:D21-N29-A28
23 Lost
24 Lost
25 ..ka ..ka ı͗jkꜣ <-//-A2-D28-Z1->
26 ..ka ..ka ı͗jkꜣ <-//-D28-Z1->
27 Lost .. ı͗j <-//-Z1-G7->
28 ..ren..hepu ..ren..hepu.. ḥpwı͗j <-//-D21:N35->-G7-Aa5:Q3-Z7-Y1
29 Anati Anati ꜥꜣnꜣti <-//-D28-Z1-G7->-G7-V30:N35-N35:G1-U33-M17-D54
30 ..ka.. Bebenem ..ka.. Bebnem ı͗jkꜣı͗jbbnm <-//-D28-Z1-G7->-G7-D58-D58-N35:Z2-G17-D54
31 Lost .. ı͗j ı͗j
Tenth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 I.. I.. M17-//
2 Seth II Seth stẖ.. <-C7-G7-//->
3 Sunu.. Sunu.. swnw <-T11-W24-Z7-//->
4 Hor.. Hor.. ḥrı͗j <-G5-G7://-//->
5 Lost
6 Lost
7 Nib.. Nob.. nibwmw.. <-D35-M17-D58-E8-N35A#24-/->
8 Mer..en.. Mer..en.. <-U6://-N35://-G7->
9 Penensetensepet Penensetensepet pnnsttnspt Q3:N35:N35-S29-K3:X1*X1-N35-S29-Q3:X1
10 Kherethebshepesu Kherethebshepesu <-T28:D21-W3:X1*B1-Z3A-A50-Z3A-//->
11 Khut..hemet Khut..hemet <-Aa1:D43-Z7-//-N42:X1-B1-//->
12 Lost
15 Salitis
16 Beon
17 Sakir-Har
18 Khyan
19 Apepi
20 Khamudi Khamudi ḫꜣmdw xA-A-m-Z7-d:y-T14
23 Lost
24 Lost
25 Zeket.. Zeket.. sktı͗j <-O34:V31:X1*Z5-//-Z1-G7-//->
26 Ar.. Ar.. <-D36:D21-//->
27 Lost
28 Lost
29 ..nia.. ..nia.. ı͗jniꜣı͗j //-G7-N35-M17-G1-//
Eleventh Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Sekhem..re Sekhem..re sḫmı͗jrꜥ <-N5-S42-Z1-//->
2 Sekhem..re Sekhem..re sḫmı͗jrꜥ <-N5-S42-Z1-G7-//->
3 Sekhemre S.. Sekhemre S.. sḫmı͗jrꜥsı͗j <-N5-S42-Z1-G7-S29-//->
4 Sewadjenre Sewadjenre.. swꜣḏnrꜥ.. <-N5-S29-M13-N35:.#234-//->
5 Nebiriaure Nebiriaure nbirjꜣwtrꜥ
  1. b-<-N5-V30-M17-D21:Z4-F40-Z7-Y1:Z2->#e
6 Nebiretaure Nebiretaure nbirjꜣwtrꜥ
  1. b-<-N5-V30-M17-D21:Z4-X1:.-F40-Z7-Y1:Z2->#e
7 Semenre Semenre smnrꜥ
  1. b-<-N5-S29-Y5:N35-U32-Y1:.*Z1->#e
8 Seuserre.. Seuserre..
  1. b-<-N5-S29-F12-S29-D21:D36->#e
9 Sekhemre Shedwaset Sekhemre Shedwaset sḫmrꜥšdwꜣst <-N5-S42-F30:D46-A24-R19-X1:O49-G7->
10 Lost
11 Lost
12 Lost
13 Lost
14 Lost
16 User..re User..re <-N5-F12-D21:.#1234-//->
17 User.. User.. <-F12#3-//->
  • The transliteration use the unicode character ‹ꜣ› as ‹A› (uppercase a), and ‹ꜥ› as ‹a› (lowercase a).
  • The Manuel de Codage text was written using the Open Source hieroglyphic editor JSesh.