for Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin (ISO standard)
Latinxua Sin Wenz
Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II
Chinese Postal Map Romanization
for Sichuanese Mandarin
Scuanxua Ladinxua Xin Wenz
for Standard Cantonese
Hong Kong Government
S. L. Wong (phonetic symbols)
S. L. Wong (romanisation)
Standard Cantonese Pinyin
for Shanghai and Suzhou dialects
for Taiwanese, Amoy, and related
Daighi tongiong pingim
Modern Literal Taiwanese
Hainanhua Pinyin Fang'an
|Min Dong |
for Fuzhou dialect
for Moiyan dialect
Kejiahua Pinyin Fang'an
For Siyen dialect
for Nanchang dialect
Romanisation in Singapore
Romanisation in the ROC
Wade–Giles (; ; Wade–Giles: Wei2-Shi4 P'in1-yin1), sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for the Mandarin language. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade during the mid-19th century ( ; Wade–Giles: Wei1-t'o3-ma3 P'in1-yin1), and was given completed form with Herbert Giles' Chinese–English dictionary of 1892.
Wade–Giles was the most widely-used system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in several standard reference books and in all books about China published before 1979. It replaced the Nanjing-based romanization systems that had been common until late in the 19th century. It has mostly been replaced by the pinyin system (developed by the Chinese government and approved during 1958) nowadays, but parts of it, especially the names of individuals and certain cities remain in use in the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Wade–Giles was developed by Thomas Francis Wade, a British ambassador in China and Chinese scholar who was the first professor of Chinese at Cambridge University. Wade published the first Chinese textbook in English in 1867. The system was refined in 1912 by Herbert Allen Giles, a British diplomat in China and his son, Lionel Giles, a curator at the British Museum.
The Wade–Giles system was designed to transcribe Chinese terms, for Chinese specialists.
The Republic of China (Taiwan) has used Wade–Giles for decades as the de facto standard, co-existing with several official but obscure romanizations in succession, namely, Gwoyeu Romatzyh (1928), MPS II (1986), and Tongyong pinyin (2000). With the election of the Nationalist government in 2008, Taiwan has officially switched to Hanyu pinyin. However, many signs and maps in Taiwan are still in Wade–Giles, and many overseas Chinese write their Chinese names in Wade–Giles.
Wade–Giles spellings and pinyin spellings for Taiwanese place names and words long accepted in English usage are still used interchangeably in English-language texts.
A common feature of the Wade–Giles system is the representation of the unaspirated-aspirated stop consonant pairs using apostrophes: p, p', t, t', k, k', ch, ch'. However, the use of apostrophes preserves b, d, g, and j for the romanization of Chinese languages containing voiced consonants, such as Shanghainese (which has a full set of voiced consonants) and Min Nan (Hō-ló-oē) whose century-old Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ, often called Missionary Romanisation) is similar to Wade–Giles. POJ, Legge romanization, Simplified Wade, and EFEO Chinese transcription use the letter h instead of an apostrophe to indicate aspiration (this is similar to the superscript ʰ used in IPA). The convention of the apostrophe or "h" to denote aspiration is also found in romanizations of other Asian languages, such as McCune–Reischauer for Korean and ISO 11940 for Thai.
People unfamiliar with Wade–Giles often ignore the apostrophes, even so far as leaving them out when copying texts, unaware that they represent vital information. Hanyu Pinyin addresses this issue by employing the Latin letters customarily used for voiced stops, unneeded in Mandarin, to represent the unaspirated stops: b, p, d, t, g, k, j, q, zh, ch.
Partly because of the popular omission of the apostrophe, the four sounds represented in Hanyu pinyin by j, q, zh, and ch all become ch in many literature and personal names. However, were the diacritics to be kept, the system reveals a symmetry that leaves no overlap:
Furthermore, Wade uses lo for three distinct sounds (le, luo, and lo in Pinyin); jo for two (re and ruo); and no for two (ne and nuo).
In addition to several sounds presented using the same letter(s), sometimes, one single sound is represented using several sets of letters. There exist two versions of Wade–Giles romanizations for each of the pinyin syllables zi, ci, and si.
On the other hand, Wade–Giles shows precisions not found in other major Romanizations in regard to the rendering of the two types of empty rimes ():
These empty rimes are all written as -i in Hanyu pinyin (hence distinguishable only by context from true i as in li), and all written as -ih in Tongyong Pinyin. Zhuyin, as a non-romanization, does not require the representation of any empty rime.
What is pronounced as a close-mid back unrounded vowel is written usually as -e as in pinyin, but sometimes as -o. This vowel in an isolate syllable is written as o or ê. When placed in a syllable, it is e; except when preceded by k, k', and h, when it is o.
What is actually pronounced as -uo is virtually always written as -o in Wade–Giles, except shuo and the three syllables of kuo, k'uo, and huo, which already have the counterparts of ko, k'o, and ho that represent pinyin ge, ke, and he.
In addition to the apostrophes used for distinguishing the multiple sounds of a single Latin symbol, Wade–Giles uses hyphens to separate all syllables within a word, whereas pinyin only uses apostrophes to separate ambiguous syllables. Originally in his dictionary, Giles used left apostrophes (‘) consistently. Such orientation was followed in Sinological works until the 1950s or 60s, when it started to be gradually replaced by right apostrophes (’) in academic literature. On-line publications almost invariably use the plain apostrophe ('). Apostrophes are completely ignored in Taiwanese passports, hence their absence in overseas Chinese names.
If the syllable is not the first in a word, its first letter is not capitalized, even if it is a proper noun. The use of apostrophes, hyphens, and capitalization is frequently not observed in place names and personal names. For example, the majority of overseas Chinese of Taiwanese origin write their given names like "Tai Lun" or "Tai-Lun", whereas the Wade–Giles actually writes "Tai-lun". The capitalization issue arises partly because ROC passports indiscriminately capitalize all letters of the holder's names (beside the photograph). It is also due to the misunderstanding that the second syllable is a middle name. (See also Chinese name)
Note: In Hanyu pinyin the so-called fifth accent (neutral accent) is written leaving the syllable with no diacritic mark at all. In Tongyong Pinyin a ring is written over the vowel instead.
Chinese Postal Map Romanization is based on Wade–Giles, but incorporating a number of exceptions that override the systematic rules.