butte

A butte () is a conspicuous isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top; it is smaller than mesas, plateaus, and tables. In some regions, such as the north central and northwestern United States, the word is used for any hill. The word butte comes from a French word meaning "small hill"; its use is prevalent in the western United States, including the southwest, where "mesa" is also used. Because of their distinctive shapes, buttes are frequently key landmarks in both plains and mountainous areas.

In differentiating mesas and buttes, geographers use the rule that a mesa has a top wider than its height, while a butte's top is narrower.[1]

Three classic buttes are Scotts Bluff (actually a collection of five bluffs) in Nebraska, Crested Butte in Colorado, and Elephant Butte in New Mexico.

Among the well-known non-flat-topped buttes in the United States are Bear Butte, South Dakota, and Black Butte, Oregon. In many cases, buttes have been given other names that do not use the word butte, for example, Courthouse Rock, Nebraska. Also, some large hills that are technically not buttes have names using butte, an example of which is Kamiak Butte in Washington State.

Formation

Buttes are formed by erosion when hard caprock covers a layer of softer rock that is eventually worn away. The hard rock thus avoids erosion. On a much smaller scale, the same process forms hoodoos.

<gallery widths=200px> Image:BlackButteOR_Russell_ric00804.jpg|Black Butte, near Sisters, Oregon Image:Butte pdphoto roadtrip 24 bg 021604.jpg|Butte near Sedona, Arizona Image:Signal Mountain TX 1900.jpg|Signal Butte near Big Spring, Texas[2] </gallery>

See also

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References

  1. . . 2008. http://www.scienceclarified.com/landforms/Faults-to-Mountains/Mesa-and-Butte.html. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  2. Hill, R.T. 1890. A brief description of the Cretaceous rocks of Texas and their economic value. In: Dumble, E.T. (ed.), First Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Texas, 1889. Austin: State Printing Office, pp. 105-141.