Lead guitar is a guitar part which plays melody lines, instrumental fill passages, and guitar solos within a song structure. The lead is the featured guitar, which usually plays single-note-based lines or double-stops. In rock, heavy metal, blues, jazz, punk, fusion, some pop, and other music styles, lead guitar lines are usually supported by a second guitarist who plays rhythm guitar, which consists of accompaniment chords and riffs, often played with a distortion effect.
To create lead guitar lines, guitarists use scales, modes, arpeggios, licks, and riffs that are performed using a variety of techniques. In rock, heavy metal, blues, jazz and fusion bands and some pop contexts as well as others, lead guitar lines often employ alternate picking, sweep picking, economy picking and legato (e.g., hammer ons, pull offs), which are used to maximize the speed of their solos or riffs. Such "tricks" can employ the picking hand used in the fret area (such as tapping), and even be augmented and embellished with devices such as bows, or separate electronic devices such as an EBow (electronic bow).
Some even like to play with their teeth or feet or other bodily appendages or the like, this is normally used as a performance technique in order to impress spectators. In a blues context, as well as others, lead guitar lines are created using call and response-style riffs that are embellished with string bending, vibrato, and slides.
In a band with two guitars, there can be a logical division between lead and rhythm guitars - although that division may be unclear. Two guitarists may perform as a guitar tandem, and trade off the lead guitar and rhythm guitar roles. Alternatively, two or more guitarists can share the lead and rhythm roles throughout the show, or both guitarists can play the same role ("dual lead guitars" or "dual rhythm guitars"). Often several guitarists playing individual notes may create chord patterns while mixing these "harmonies" with mixed unison passages creating unique sound effects with sound altering electronic special effects such as doublers or a "chorus" effect that over-pronounce the lead significantly sometimes to cut through to be heard in loud shows or throw its sound aesthetically both acoustically or electronically.
In rock, heavy metal, blues, jazz and fusion bands and some pop contexts as well as others, the lead guitar line often involves melodies (as well as power chords from the rhythm guitars) with a sustained, singing tone. To create this tone on the electric guitar, guitarists often select certain pickups and use electronic effects such as effects pedals and distortion pedals, or sound compressors, or doubler effects for a more sustained tone, and delay effects or an electronic "chorus" effect as well as electronic reverb and echo for a reverberant sound.
To attain this prized sustain effect tube amplifiers such as Marshall are often utilized. The desired effect, springs basically from where the tubes, when pushed to high volumes reach their peak and no farther which has an effect of attenuating the attack portions of the signal while presenting the trailing portions of the signal (which are normally progressively quieter) at the same volume as that peak output portions mimicking compressor/limiter electronic effects.
Simultaneous to this, the distortion can actually distort itself in fidelity of its production adding a smooth "creamy" effect to distortion when as well the resolution of the usually gritty distortion sound is compromised and the note will almost return to its original configuration plus the desired "sloping" effects. Hence, the name of the band "Cream" that utilized these aspects extensively. These are aesthetically pleasing to many guitar players and sometimes violin and keyboard players as well.
High volume is also used to induce audio feedback, which increases sustain dramatically. Sometimes, if done correctly by holding the guitar pickups at precise distances from the amplifier speakers such can present a steady, undecaying sound. Electronic special effects employing effects loops can artificially reproduce this as well. Other effects used to embellish lead guitar tone and pitch include the whammy bar which physically stretches the strings, slides used extensively in country music and wah-wah and univibe effects. Also very commonly used are hammer-ons.